Kashmir | Basic Facts

Status: ‘Kashmir’ – the State of Jammu and Kashmir, mainly occupied by India since 1947. A disputed territory according to International Law.
Geography:  Located between the borders of Pakistan, India and China.  With an area of 87,000 sq. miles, Kashmir is three times the size of Belgium, Netherlands and Luxemburg combined, and larger than 103 sovereign states.  The population is estimated at approximately 18 million across all the divisions of Kashmir (based on the most recent census of India in 2011, and of Azad Kashmir in 2017).
The area of Kashmir is:

  • 51% Indian-occupied
  • 38% Pakistani-administered self-governing Azad Kashmir
  • 11% Chinese-administered Aksai Chin

Language: Urdu (Official), Kashmiri, other regional languages, English also widely spoken
Religion: 80% Muslim, 16% Hindu, 3% Sikh, 1% Buddhist, Christian, other
Capitals: Srinagar (Indian-occupied Kashmir), Muzaffarabad (Azad Kashmir)
The Indian Army:  Around 800,000 armed forces, including regular army and paramilitary
Controversial Laws / Draconian Measures:

  • Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA) – providing the armed forces complete impunity for crimes that they commit;
  • Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act (PSA) – empowering the law enforcement agencies to detain and imprison anyone without charge or trial;
  • National Security Act;
  • Prevention and Suppression of Sabotages Act

Human Rights Violations Statistics:

  • 100,000+ killed and custodial deaths
  • 85,000 seriously injured
  • 600 blinded by pellets
  • 110,000 imprisoned without trial
  • 10,000+ women molested and raped


Current Crisis

Historical Background

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